This paper attempts to give explanations of environmental collaborations, as few works have focused empirically on this topic, given the lack of precise data. We aim to explain what, why, where, and with whom firms collaborate (or not)? We used more than 300 data on environmental innovations (EI) collected through semi-directive interviews and analyzed them with a mixed method. In line with the work of De Marchi (2012), we tested the specificity of EI in comparison with innovation in general. First, a probit model reveals the importance of the type of EI in the probability of collaborating when a company produces an EI. Next, statistics and verbatim transcripts emphasize the relevance of private companies as partners to EI and the frequent requirement for technical support during collaborations. These last two results nonetheless depend on the type of EI achieved. Partners are selected mainly for their geographical proximity and the trust granted to them, whereas costs and competences appear to be secondary criteria of choice. Lastly, we observe that partners are mainly located within the region irrespective of the type of EI.
JEL Codes: L19, O31, Q55
- Environmental Innovations